Title: Childhood Brain Tumor Treatment May Hamper Adult SurvivorsCategory: Health NewsCreated: 8/9/2018 12:00:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 8/10/2018 12:00:00 AM
(St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital) In the first study of its kind, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital investigators have found that more than half of pediatric central nervous system tumor survivors do not achieve complete independence as adults. Investigators looked at six aspects of independence in more than 300 survivors, including employment, independent living, marital status, assistance with routine or personal care needs, and the ability to drive.
It is well known that children treated for cancer are at risk for cognitive and functional impairments. Such research is largely based on studies of late effects in school-aged or older children. However, far less is known about executive function weaknesses in preschool-aged children treated for cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in a clinically referred sample of young oncology patients, and its association with broader domains of functioning. Data from 61 young children with cancer, who were referred for clinical cognitive evaluations, were abstracted and included …
Pediatric Blood&Cancer, EarlyView.
Brain tumors are the most common malignancy of childhood. Approximately 50% of pediatric CNS tumors are astrocytomas, most low grade. Low grade glioma (LGG) are WHO grade I or II tumors. Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common; accounts for 33% of all gliomas in children 0 –14 years and ∼18% of all childhood brain tumors. Prognosis with this slow-growing tumor is excellent; 10 year overall survival of ∼95%. However, event free survival averages ∼50%. Patient age and extent of tumor resection are key prognostic factors; tumor location and size impact resection and outcome.
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor among children under 15, representing 20% of childhood cancers. Prognosis and therapeutic options vary dramatically based on histologic and molecular profiles. We have studied 222 brain tumors using the CHOP Comprehensive Solid Tumor Panel, which interrogates 238 cancer genes and 110 fusion partners. The most common tumors are pilocytic/pilomyxoid astrocytoma (67), medulloblastoma (23) and diffuse midline glioma (17). Clinically significant genomic alterations were identified in 93% of patients.
A viral immunotherapy using a herpes virus to treat brain tumors has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated in a pediatric study from UAB and Children ’s of Alabama.
The findings managed to show preliminary evidence of effectiveness in killing malignant tumor cells.
The funding to develop the therapy has been provided by the NIH/NCI, Department of Defense, St. Baldrick’s Foundation, Rally Foundation for Childhood Cancer Research, Cannonb all Kid’s Foundation, Hyundai Hope on Wheels, Vs.…
(Cancer Research UK) Scientists have discovered that cancerous cells in an aggressive type of childhood brain tumour work together to infiltrate the brain, and this finding could ultimately lead to much needed new treatments.
ConclusionThe cumulative incidence of secondary cancer varied among primary cancers. The primary cancer was closely associated with the secondary cancer but stem cell transplantation was a common risk factor for secondary cancers among CCSs.
Neurological complications resulting from childhood cancer treatments are common. Treatment for childhood neoplastic disorders is often multimodal and may include procedures, cranial irradiation, chemotherapy, transplant, and immunotherapy, each of which carries distinct neurological risks. Procedures, such as lumbar punctures, are commonly used in this population for diagnostic purposes as well as intrathecal medication administration. Surgery is associated with an array of potential neurologic complications, with posterior fossa syndrome being a common cause of morbidity in pediatric brain tumor patients after neurosurgical resection.