THURSDAY, Aug. 9, 2018 — More than half of adults who survived childhood brain and spinal cord cancers don’t live fully independent lives, a new study finds.
Researchers at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tenn., assessed more than…
It is well known that children treated for cancer are at risk for cognitive and functional impairments. Such research is largely based on studies of late effects in school-aged or older children. However, far less is known about executive function weaknesses in preschool-aged children treated for cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in a clinically referred sample of young oncology patients, and its association with broader domains of functioning. Data from 61 young children with cancer, who were referred for clinical cognitive evaluations, were abstracted and included …
Pediatric Blood&Cancer, EarlyView.
Brain tumors are the most common malignancy of childhood. Approximately 50% of pediatric CNS tumors are astrocytomas, most low grade. Low grade glioma (LGG) are WHO grade I or II tumors. Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common; accounts for 33% of all gliomas in children 0 –14 years and ∼18% of all childhood brain tumors. Prognosis with this slow-growing tumor is excellent; 10 year overall survival of ∼95%. However, event free survival averages ∼50%. Patient age and extent of tumor resection are key prognostic factors; tumor location and size impact resection and outcome.
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor among children under 15, representing 20% of childhood cancers. Prognosis and therapeutic options vary dramatically based on histologic and molecular profiles. We have studied 222 brain tumors using the CHOP Comprehensive Solid Tumor Panel, which interrogates 238 cancer genes and 110 fusion partners. The most common tumors are pilocytic/pilomyxoid astrocytoma (67), medulloblastoma (23) and diffuse midline glioma (17). Clinically significant genomic alterations were identified in 93% of patients.
A viral immunotherapy using a herpes virus to treat brain tumors has been shown to be safe and well-tolerated in a pediatric study from UAB and Children ’s of Alabama.
The findings managed to show preliminary evidence of effectiveness in killing malignant tumor cells.
The funding to develop the therapy has been provided by the NIH/NCI, Department of Defense, St. Baldrick’s Foundation, Rally Foundation for Childhood Cancer Research, Cannonb all Kid’s Foundation, Hyundai Hope on Wheels, Vs.…
(Cancer Research UK) Scientists have discovered that cancerous cells in an aggressive type of childhood brain tumour work together to infiltrate the brain, and this finding could ultimately lead to much needed new treatments.
ConclusionThe cumulative incidence of secondary cancer varied among primary cancers. The primary cancer was closely associated with the secondary cancer but stem cell transplantation was a common risk factor for secondary cancers among CCSs.
Neurological complications resulting from childhood cancer treatments are common. Treatment for childhood neoplastic disorders is often multimodal and may include procedures, cranial irradiation, chemotherapy, transplant, and immunotherapy, each of which carries distinct neurological risks. Procedures, such as lumbar punctures, are commonly used in this population for diagnostic purposes as well as intrathecal medication administration. Surgery is associated with an array of potential neurologic complications, with posterior fossa syndrome being a common cause of morbidity in pediatric brain tumor patients after neurosurgical resection.
We report on two sisters originally suspected of having CMMRD syndrome due to their history of colonic polyps and NF1 associated skin findings, both were subsequently found to have biallelicMSH6 mutations. After years of CMMRD syndrome follow-up, the proband was diagnosed with breast cancer at age 29, while her sister was diagnosed with a glioblastoma at age 27. Immunohistochemistry analysis on the breast tumor tissue revealed weak MSH6 protein staining. Exome sequencing revealed a hypermutated breast tumor and an ultra-hypermutated brain tumor. Multi-gene panel testing was also performed and revealed no additional mutatio…
Authors: Michaeli O, Tabori U
Germline mutations in cancer causing genes result in high risk of developing cancer throughout life. These cancer predisposition syndromes (CPS) are especially prevalent in childhood brain tumors and impact both the patient’s and other family members’ survival. Knowledge of specific CPS may alter the management of the cancer, offer novel targeted therapies which may improve survival for these patients, and enables early detection of other malignancies. This review focuses on the role of CPS in pediatric high grade gliomas (PHGG), the deadliest group of childhood brain tumors. …