US-based immuno-oncology company Formula Pharmaceuticals has initiated a Phase I/IIa clinical trial of allogeneic, cytokine-induced killer (CIK), cell-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) cancer immunotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).

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Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica BAuthor(s): Zijun Zhao, Yu Chen, Ngiambudulu M. Francisco, Yuanqing Zhang, Minhao WuAbstractChimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T cell) therapy is a novel adoptive immunotherapy where T lymphocytes are engineered with synthetic receptors known as chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). The CAR-T cell is an effector T cell that recognizes and eliminates specific cancer cells, independent of major histocompatibility complex molecules. The whole procedure of CAR-T cell production is not well understood. The CAR-T cell has been used predominantly in t…

AbstractCancer immunotherapies, widely heralded as transformational for many adult cancer patients, are becoming viable options for selected subsets of pediatric cancer patients. Many therapies are currently being investigated, from immunomodulatory agents to adoptive cell therapy, bispecific T-cell engagers, oncolytic virotherapy, and checkpoint inhibition. One of the most exciting immunotherapies recently FDA approved is the use of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells for pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. With this approval and others, immunotherapy for pediatric cancers is gaining traction. One of the caveats t…

Source: Pediatric DrugsCategory: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Authors: Brown PA, Shah B
Abstract
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases with different morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular subgroups, some of which have significant therapeutic implications. It typically presents with an aggressive clinical course, and among adults, responds poorly to standard chemotherapy, and carries a high risk for relapse. Despite the significant progress made in inducing remission, frequent relapses remain a challenge. Novel drugs, such as potent later-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific monoclonal antibodies…

Conclusion: Despite blinatumomab ’s relatively modest myelosuppression and the lack of mucotoxicity, host factors (e.g., duration and degree of neutropenia/lymphopenia) play a key role and should be considered when choosing anti-microbial prophylaxis. In relapsed/refractory disease, the ANC should be monitored closely post blinat umomab since neutropenia can unexpectedly develop after treatment which may be compounded by the underlying disease and recent chemotherapy effects.

Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source:Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B Author(s): Zijun Zhao, Yu Chen, Ngiambudulu M. Francisco, Yuanqing Zhang, Minhao Wu Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T cell) therapy is a novel adoptive immunotherapy where T lymphocytes are engineered with synthetic receptors known as chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). The CAR-T cell is an effector T cell that recognizes and eliminates specific cancer cells, independent of major histocompatibility complex molecules. The whole procedure of CAR-T cell production is not well understood. The CAR-T cell has been used predominantly in the tr…

In conclusion, partly automated GMP-generation of CAR T cells from critically small blood samples was f easible with a new stimulation protocol that leads to high functionality and expansion potential, balanced CD4/CD8 ratios and a conversion to a Tcm/Tscm phenotype.

Abstract
Immunotherapy is now the fourth pillar of cancer therapy, with surgery, radiation, and traditional chemotherapy being the remaining pillars. Over the past decade, enthusiasm for immunotherapy has increased because of, in part, data showing that it consistently improves overall survival in select patients with historically refractory cancers. This issue covers various aspects of immunotherapy ranging from use of 1) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to treat patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; 2) population pharmacokinetic/dynamic modeling to develop new immune checkpoint inhibitors; an…

Recently clinical trials utilizing genetically engineered T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that is half monoclonal antibody and half T-cell receptor have demonstrated remarkable response in patients with advanced cancers like relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoma. Moreover, emerging chimeric genome editing tools such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZNFs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas composed of sequence-specific DNA binding module(s) linked to a non-specific DNA cleavage dom…

Source: Cancer LettersCategory: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Mini-review Source Type: research

As a consequence of acquired or intrinsic disease resistance, the prognosis for patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is dismal. Novel, less toxic drugs are clearly needed. One of the most promising emerging therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment is targeted immunotherapy. Immune therapies have improved outcomes for patients with other hematologic malignancies including B-cell ALL; however no immune therapy has been successfully developed for T-ALL. We hypothesize targeting CD38 will be effective against T-ALL. We demonstrate that blasts from patients with T-ALL have robust s…

Source: BloodCategory: Hematology Authors: Tags: Pediatric Hematology, Immunobiology and Immunotherapy, Lymphoid Neoplasia, Brief Reports Source Type: research

Authors: Liu Y, Chen X, Han W, Zhang Y
Abstract
On August 30, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Novartis’ tisagenlecleucel (CTL-019, Kymriah), which is a synthetic bioimmune product of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, for the treatment of relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). This was a milestone in tumor immunology on account of the significant antitumor effect of tisagenlecleucel for the treatment of relapsed/refractory B-ALL patients. Conventional standard therapies for B-ALL have high failure rates, thus developing new therapies is crucial fo…

Source: Drugs of TodayCategory: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drugs Today (Barc) Source Type: research





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