Use of these new technologies creates opportunities for clinical laboratories and pathologists to add more value when collaborating with physicians to advance patient care Ongoing improvements in point-of-care testing are encouraging one major academic medical center to apply this mode of testing to the diagnosis of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). This development should be of interest […]

Source: Dark DailyCategory: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Laboratory Management and Operations Laboratory Operations Laboratory Pathology Laboratory Testing Management & Operations Acinetobacter biological culturing centers for medicare and medicaid services clinical laboratory CMS DNA E. c Source Type: news

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This study further found that A. baumannii also has IAA productive capability, primarily involving the ipdC gene, and transcriptome and spent media analysis of wild-type and mutant cultures grown in minimal media revealed that A. baumannii likely produces IAA through the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway. Exogenously applied IAA improved tolerance against oxidative stress in wild-type A. baumannii and iacA mutants unable to degrade IAA, but not in ipdC mutants incapable of producing IAA, suggesting that endogenous IAA is important for stress tolerance. Meanwhile, ipdC mutants also had reduced virulence against human A54…

Bindu Subhadra, Jaeseok Kim, Dong Ho Kim, Kyungho Woo, Man Hwan Oh, Chul Hee Choi

In this study, a novel, single-chamber bioelectrochemical system (BES) with stacked modules was developed to improve azo dye decolorization. The decolorization extent of BES with three modules (80.3±3.1%) was about 15% and 33% higher than that with two modules (65.6±4.5%) and one module (47.1±3.9%) at an influent Acid Orange 7 (AO7) loading rate of 250 g m-3 d-1, demonstrating the feasibility of enhanced decolorization in scale-up BES through increasing the number of stacked modules. Moreover, the contribution of each module to dye decolorization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and volatile fatty…

ConclusionsHigh bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects with variety of potential pathogens and normal flora was detected.S. aureus was the most common bacterial isolate. Biofilm forming ability offers additional survival advantage to the organisms on these objects. Present study highlights the need of improved hand hygiene among healthcare workers and regular cleaning/disinfection of sites of frequent public contact.

AbstractIn the present investigation, five novel Cr(VI) reducing bacteria were isolated from tannery effluents and solid wastes and identified asKosakonia cowanii MKPF2,Klebsiella pneumonia MKPF5,Acinetobacter gerneri MKPF7,Klebsiella variicola MKPF8 andSerratia marcescens MKPF12 by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The maximum tolerance concentration of Cr(VI) as K2Cr2O7 of the bacterial isolates was varying up to 2000  mg/L. Among the investigated bacterial isolates,A. gerneri MKPF7 was best in terms of reduction rate. The optimum temperatures for growth and Cr(VI) reduction by the bacterial isolates were 35 and 40 &…

Abstract
Antibiotic resistance has become a global crisis. Studies on the mechanism of bacterial tolerance to antibiotics will not only increase our conceptual understanding of bacterial death but also provide potential targets for novel inhibitors. We screened a mutant library containing a full set of in-frame deletion mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 and identified 140 genes that possibly contribute to gentamicin tolerance. Deletion of ksgA increased the inhibition and killing potency against mid-log phase bacteria by aminoglycosides. Initially identified as a 16S rRNA methyltransferase, KsgA also has additional…

Source: Antimicrobial Agents and ChemotherapyCategory: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

This study assessed trends and patterns in antimicrobial-resistant intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Istanbul, Turkey.MethodsBacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility data were collected for all GNB causing nosocomial infections in five adult ICUs of a large university hospital in 2012–2015. Multiresistance patterns were categorised as multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR). Temporal patterns and trends were assessed using regression analyses.ResultsOf 991 pathogenic GNB recorded, the most frequent were Aci…

Abstract
SUMMARYStrains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, particularly those that are multiresistant, are an increasing major health care problem around the world. It is now abundantly clear that both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are able to meet the evolutionary challenge of combating antimicrobial chemotherapy, often by acquiring preexisting resistance determinants from the bacterial gene pool. This is achieved through the concerted activities of mobile genetic elements able to move within or between DNA molecules, which include insertion sequences, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and …

Source: Clinical Microbiology ReviewsCategory: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

as R, Wood TK, Tomás M
Abstract
SUMMARYPathogens that infect the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are subjected to intense pressure due to the environmental conditions of the surroundings. This pressure has led to the development of mechanisms of bacterial tolerance or persistence which enable microorganisms to survive in these locations. In this review, we analyze the general stress response (RpoS mediated), reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance, energy metabolism, drug efflux pumps, SOS response, quorum sensing (QS) bacterial communication, (p)ppGpp signaling, and toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of …

Source: Clinical Microbiology ReviewsCategory: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion radical ( •O2−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (•OH) are ubiquitous oxygen derivatives that have emerged as important players in antibiotic-mediated bacterial lethality [1–4]. They are inevitable toxic by-products of aerobic respiratory processes of living organisms [5], which are rest rained by bacterial ROS defense mechanisms such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases and the glutathione system. These noxious species damage Fe-S clusters, releasing Fe2+ to catalyse the conversion of H2O2 to •OH via Fenton reaction [6,7].





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