(Women &Infants Hospital) A basic connection of statistics lead a researcher at Women &Infants Hospital of Rhode Island to question whether women should be screened for anal cancer during a regular visit to the gynecologist, and what technique is most effective.

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Background: In 2006 the US FDA approved the first Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for girls/women from 9 to 26 years of age. Since then many countries have licensed and adopted HPV vaccination for use in National Immunization Programs (NIP) for girls. In 2009 and 2010, the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was licensed for use in males from 9 to 26 years of age for prevention of genital warts and anal cancer, respectively. The ACIP recommended its routine vaccination for boys and girls in 2011.

Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesCategory: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Type: Electronic/Moderated Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Background: Anal cancer, a relatively rare malignancy, has been steadily increasing in risk groups such as male that have sex with men (MSM), male and female with HIV and HPV infection, and women with previous cancer of the genital tract. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, genital tract and anal canal are associated with high-risk HPV types. When HPV integrates in the host cell genome in squamous cells, the result is overexpression of the viral oncogenic proteins E6 and E7, which interact with cellular proteins to initiate neoplastic transformation and upregulation of p16INK4A and Ki-67 proliferation antigen.

Source: International Journal of Infectious DiseasesCategory: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: UMP. 183 Source Type: research

Background: India has a third large population of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the world. Incidence of Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection anal cancer is high among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). However, there are very few studies among HIV positive men in India. Thus this cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of anal HPV infection and anal HPV types in HIV positive males attending the Antiretroviral therapy (ART) centre.

Authors: Frakulli R, Buwenge M, Cammelli S, Macchia G, Farina E, Arcelli A, Ferioli M, Fuccio L, Tagliaferri L, Galuppi A, Frezza GP, Morganti AG
Radio-chemotherapy (RCT) is the primary treatment of anal cancer (AC). However, the role and the optimal total dose of a radiation boost is still unclear. No randomized controlled trials nor systematic reviews have been performed to analyze the efficacy of brachytherapy (BRT) as boost in AC. Therefore, we performed this systematic review based on PRISMA methodology to establish the role of BRT boost in AC. A systematic search of the bibliographic databases: PubMe…

CONCLUSIONS: Although nearly half of MSM would not actively pursue HPV vaccination, the vast majority would accept the vaccine if recommended by HCPs. In order to achieve optimal uptake, vaccine promotion campaigns should focus on MSM who do not access SHCs and those unwilling to disclose their sexual orientation.
PMID: 30037419 [PubMed – in process]

Source: VaccineCategory: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

We report on 4 year outcomes since the introduction of IMRT and identify the most predictive bowel organ at risk that correlates with acute diarrhoea.

Source: Clinical OncologyCategory: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of anal cancer screening strategies including standard anoscopy, anal cytology, and HPV genotyping in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, Published online: 20 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41416-018-0176-9Comparison of anal cancer screening strategies including standard anoscopy, anal cytology, and HPV genotyping in HIV-positive men who have sex with men

Source: British Journal of CancerCategory: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research

This article reviews the early successes of anti-PD-1 therapies and adoptive T-cell therapies for metastatic anal cancer as a potential foundation for novel combination immunotherapy trials in the future.
PMID: 30006430 [PubMed – in process]

Authors: Benson AB, Venook AP, Al-Hawary MM, Cederquist L, Chen YJ, Ciombor KK, Cohen S, Cooper HS, Deming D, Engstrom PF, Grem JL, Grothey A, Hochster HS, Hoffe S, Hunt S, Kamel A, Kirilcuk N, Krishnamurthi S, Messersmith WA, Meyerhardt J, Mulcahy MF, Murphy JD, Nurkin S, Saltz L, Sharma S, Shibata D, Skibber JM, Sofocleous CT, Stoffel EM, Stotsky-Himelfarb E, Willett CG, Wuthrick E, Gregory KM, Freedman-Cass DA
The NCCN Guidelines for Anal Carcinoma provide recommendations for the management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal or perianal region. Primary treatment of anal cancer us…

ConclusionTo achieve potentially curative resections with uninvolved margins in patients with locally advanced colorectal and anal cancer, multi-visceral resection including urinary tract reconstruction can be performed with reasonable morbidity.

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