Growing evidence suggests that microbes can influence the efficacy of cancer therapies. By studying colon cancer models, we found that bacteria can metabolize the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine (2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine) into its inactive form, 2′,2′-difluorodeoxyuridine. Metabolism was dependent on the expression of a long isoform of the bacterial enzyme cytidine deaminase (CDDL), seen primarily in Gammaproteobacteria. In a colon cancer mouse model, gemcitabine resistance was induced by intratumor Gammaproteobacteria, dependent on bacterial CDDL expression, and abrogated by cotreatment with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Gemcitabine is commonly used to treat pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and we hypothesized that intratumor bacteria might contribute to drug resistance of these tumors. Consistent with this possibility, we found that of the 113 human PDACs that were tested, 86 (76%) were positive for bacteria, mainly Gammaproteobacteria.

Source: ScienceNOWCategory: Science Authors: Tags: Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news

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Mutations or other alterations in theRET gene have been implicated in a variety of malignancies – most commonly thyroid, but also chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and lung, breast, pancreatic, and colon cancers. Here we present a case of a gentlemen initially diagnosed with and treated for non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma. Genomic profiling of his tumor specimen rev ealed aRET point mutation with a known association with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Further pathological and molecular diagnostic evaluation confirmed a diagnosis of MTC, leading to a change in treatment from standard chemoth…

AbstractA promising approach capitalizing on the specific and highly sensitive characteristics of the body ’s own immune system is demonstrated in the context of revealing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer (PDAC). IgA from a local biofluid called gastrointestinal lavage fluid (GLF) is used to investigate glycan reactivity to show the potential of this approach. IgA antibody responses, just as wit h IgG, result in amplification of a small signal which aids in detecting changes from a healthy state. IgA from GLF was screened against glycan arrays containing 609 glycan structures to investigate differential bindin…

Objectives The link between inflammation and carcinogenesis is irrefutable. Trying to pinpoint key factors at play, cancer research has found interest in Toll-like receptors (TLRs), through which pathological molecular patterns trigger immune cell response. TLRs appear to show prognostic value in adenocarcinomas of the mouth, colon and ovaries. We set out to investigate whether the expression of Toll-like receptors 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 could be used for prognostic evaluation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients.

Source: PancreatologyCategory: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: 5. Pancreatic Cancer II Source Type: research

The objectives of this first-in-human study were to evaluate the safety, biodistribution and dosimetry of this αvβ6-directed imaging probe. Methods: [18F]αvβ6-BP was prepared per current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) under the guidelines of USP Chapter using N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB) and the product was formulated in saline/ethanol (

Source: Journal of Nuclear MedicineCategory: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: First-in-Human & amp; New Human Applications Source Type: research

More than 150 years ago, German pathologist Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (1821-1901) described the finding of the involvement of the left supraclavicular node in gastric cancer.1 It is now known that a number of abdominal and thoracic malignancies have a propensity to metastasize to this anatomic site, which is commonly referred to as Virchow node. Cancers known to spread to Virchow node include malignancies of the lung, pancreas, and esophagus, and adenocarcinoma of the gastric corpus, kidney, ovary, testicle, stomach, corpus uteri, cervix uteri, colon, and rectum.

Source: UrologyCategory: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: History Source Type: research

[ASCO- and ESMO-update 2017 – highlights of the 53. meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology/ASCO 2017 and European Society for Medical Oncology/ESMO congress 2017].
Z Gastroenterol. 2018 Apr;56(4):384-397
Authors: Ettrich TJ, Ebert M, Lorenzen S, Moehler M, Vogel A, Witkowski L, Seufferlein T, Reinacher-Schick A
At ASCO 2017, and subsequently the ESMO congress 2017, a number of studies were presented which, in part, may change the present standard of therapy in gastrointestinal oncology. The German FLOT4 trial established perioperative Docetaxel, Oxaliplatin and 5-Fluorourac…

Source: Zeitschrift fur GastroenterologieCategory: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Z Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Background: It has been shown that mutations alone are not the sole determinant of response to targeted agents, for example,BRAF mutations predict response to BRAF inhibitors in melanoma but not colon cancer due to differential EGFR signalling in colon cancer. We aimed to study any context-dependent differences in signalling pathways between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) withKRAS mutations using a targeted phosphoproteomic approach in cell lines exposed to targeted anticancer drugsex vivo.

Source: Annals of OncologyCategory: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Conclusion Although rare, a sigmoid tumor in a patient with known pancreatic adenocarcinoma must raise the suspicion of metastasis.

AbstractIncreasing evidence suggests that cancer progression is strongly influenced by host immune response, which is represented by immune cell infiltrates. T-lymphocyte-based immunoscore has proved to be a prognostic factor in colon cancer, but its significance in pancreatic cancer is poorly known. Total of 108 patients operated (R0/R1) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) (TNM stage I –II) were included in the study. Immune cell score (IS) was determined by scoring the samples from grade 0 to 4 according to the number of immune cells (CD3+ and CD8+) in tumor core and invasion margin using tissue microarrays…

Source: Virchows ArchivCategory: Pathology Source Type: research

Mounting evidence, particularly from prospective epidemiologic studies but with additional support from animal models and mechanistic studies, supported conclusions in 2016 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in their review of the preventive effects of weight control on cancer risk.

The workgroup concluded that obesity is causally related to cancer at 13 anatomic sites (esophagus: adenocarcinoma; gastric cardia; colon and rectum; liver; gallbladder; pancreas; breast: postmenopausal; uterine endometrial; ovary; kidney: renal cell; meningioma; thyroid; and multiple myeloma). Furth…

Source: Clinical ChemistryCategory: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Endocrinology and Metabolism Reviews Source Type: research

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