(Umea University) An international team of researchers led by professor Niklas Arnberg at Ume å University, shows that adenovirus binds to a specific type of carbohydrate that is overexpressed on certain types of cancer cells. The discovery opens up new opportunities for the development of virus-based cancer therapy. The study is published in the latest issue of the scientific journal ” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA ” , PNAS PNAS April 19, 2018. 201716900
Publication date: 7 October 2018Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 454Author(s): Adrianne Jenner, Chae-Ok Yun, Arum Yoon, Peter S. Kim, Adelle C.F. CosterAbstractThe use of viruses as a cancer treatment is becoming increasingly more robust; however, there is still a long way to go before a completely successful treatment is formulated. One major challenge in the field is to select which virus, out of a burgeoning number of oncolytic viruses and engineered derivatives, can maximise both treatment spread and anticancer cytotoxicity. To assist in solving this problem, an in-depth understanding of the virus-tumour …
Authors: Hulin-Curtis SL, Davies JA, Jones R, Hudson E, Hanna L, Chester JD, Parker AL
Ovarian cancer is often termed a silent killer due to the late onset of symptoms. Whilst patients initially respond to chemotherapy, they rapidly develop chemo-resistance. Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) are promising anti-cancer agents engineered to “hijack” the unique molecular machinery of cancer cells enabling tumour-selective viral replication. This allows spread to adjacent cells and amplification of oncolysis within the tumour. OAds represent an excellent opportunity for ovarian cancer therapy via intra-pe…
Publication date: 7 October 2018 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 454 Author(s): Adrianne Jenner, Chae-Ok Yun, Arum Yoon, Peter S. Kim, Adelle C.F. Coster The use of viruses as a cancer treatment is becoming increasingly more robust; however, there is still a long way to go before a completely successful treatment is formulated. One major challenge in the field is to select which virus, out of a burgeoning number of oncolytic viruses and engineered derivatives, can maximise both treatment spread and anticancer cytotoxicity. To assist in solving this problem, an in-depth understanding of the virus-tumour inter…
CONCLUSIONS: Oncolytic Ad5NULL-A20 virotherapies represent an excellent vector for local and systemic targeting of αvβ6-over-expressing cancers, and exciting platforms for tumour selective over-expression of therapeutic anti-cancer modalities, including immune checkpoint inhibitors.
PMID: 29798908 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Conclusions: These results indicate that expression of NIS under control of the midkine promoter can likely be used to achieve cancer-specific expression of NIS in lung cancer. In combination with radioiodine therapy, this strategy is a possible method of lung cancer therapy.
Authors: Liu Z, Sun X, Xiao S, Lin Y, Li C, Hao N, Zhou M, Deng R, Ke S, Zhong Z
Liver cancer is a fatal disease with limited therapy options. The recombinant adenovirus expressing tumor-suppressor gene of PTEN (Ad5-PTEN) showed effective antitumor activity against liver cancer. However, its disadvantages produced great limitation on its application, especially its nonspecific and toxicity to normal cells and tissues. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is over-expressed in some liver cancer cells and an RNA aptamer EpDT3 could specially target to EpCAM-positive cells. Based on this founding, we …
(University of Zurich) Scientists from the University of Zurich have redesigned an adenovirus for use in cancer therapy. To achieve this they developed a new protein shield that hides the virus and protects it from being eliminated. Adapters on the surface of the virus enable the reconstructed virus to specifically infect tumor cells.
Authors: Qiao HB, Li J, Lv LJ, Nie BJ, Lu P, Xue F, Zhang ZM
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is an anti-cancer cytokine that stimulates T cell propagation, triggering innate and adaptive immunity. IL-2 has been used for cancer therapy and has achieved curative effects. Recombinant adenovirus p53 injection (rAd‑p53) is a gene therapeutic agent that may improve the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma (GBM). In the present study, the effect of combined IL‑2 and rAd‑p53 treatment was studied. The ability of IL‑2 to stimulate immunoregulation and the ability of p53 to induce apoptosis for GBM was researched in…
In this study, we found that this adenovirus showed an even higher gene transduction efficiency and oncolytic potency for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in vitro, in a mouse model, and using clinical specimens of various human cancers. The data suggest that the virus, AdSur‐SYE, is a promising next‐generation therapy agent for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Conclusion. This study highlighted the significant role of survivin in gene therapy as it has the potential to render CRAd more tumor specific. It also establishes that higher CAR expression plays a vital role in the success of adenovirus-based therapies. Furthermore, a careful combination of chemotherapy drugs and oncolytic viruses can culminate in significant therapeutic achievements against cancer.